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How can one get their software to run reliably even when moved from one computing environment to another?
The answer is –
A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies to ensure that the application runs quickly and reliably, from one computing environment to another. The different computing environments could be from a developer’s system to a test environment, from a staging environment to production, or even from a physical machine at a data center to a virtual machine on a private or public cloud.
A container comprises an entire run-time environment – an application, all its dependencies, libraries, other binaries, required configuration files, etc. all bundled together into one small package. Thus, when applications are containerized, differences in OS distribution and underlying infrastructure are abstracted away.
What is Docker?
Developing apps is more than just writing the code. It involves multiple languages, frameworks, architecture, discontinuous interfaces between different tools for each stage of the development lifecycle, and so much more, creating a hugely complex structure that can get overwhelming and difficult to manage & work with at times.
This is where containers help. Docker is a set of Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) products that use OS-level virtualization to deliver software in container packages. Docker simplifies and accelerates the workflow. It gives the developers the freedom to innovate with their tools of choice, their chosen application stacks, as well as their chosen deployment environments for every project they work on.
In the 2019 StackOverflow Survey, Docker was rated #1 in ‘Most Loved’ and #2 in ‘Most Wanted’ Platforms. In the survey, respondents also said that Docker ‘Just Works!’, ‘Is Better Than Chocolate Cake!’, and ‘Best Tool Ever, I’m in Love!’
Docker container technology was launched in 2013 as an open-source Docker Engine. It leveraged the power of containers and other computing concepts, especially in the Linux world.
The technology behind Docker is unique as it focuses on the requirements of the developers and system operators to separate application dependencies from infrastructure.
As Docker experienced immense success in the world, it secured a partnership with Microsoft. With this partnership, Docker and its functionalities were introduced to the Windows Server, also called Docker Windows Containers.
Today, all major data centers and cloud providers leverage the technology of Docker and its open-source project – Moby. Some of these providers also use this technology for their container-native Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) offerings. Moreover, leading serverless frameworks also utilize the Docker technology.
What is Kubernetes?
According to Kubernetes.io, Kubernetes is a portable, extensible, open-source platform for managing containerized workloads and services that facilitates both declarative configuration and automation. Kubernetes has a large, fast-growing ecosystem.
The name Kubernetes has originated from the Greek term for helmsman or pilot. Like Docker, Kubernetes also started as an open-source project. It was open-sourced by Google and it combines over 15 years of Google’s experience running production workloads at scale with some of the best possible ideas and practices from the Google & Kubernetes community.
In a production environment, when you are using containers to bundle and run the applications, the containers need to be managed efficiently to ensure there is no downtime. If a container does go down, another one needs to start and keep the system working. This process would work a lot more smoothly and efficiently if there was a system to handle this behavior of the containers than it would be if done manually. This is what Kubernetes helps you do.
Kubernetes can help with:
- Service discovery and load balancing: Kubernetes exposes containers using the DNS or their own IP address. Based on the traffic coming to respective containers, Kubernetes balances the loads and distributes the network traffic. It ensures that the deployments remain stable at all times.
- Storage orchestration: Using Kubernetes, one can automatically mount storage systems like local storages, public clouds, etc.
- Automated rollouts and rollbacks: The desired state for deployed containers can be described using Kubernetes. It can help change the actual state of the containers to the desires state accordingly. Kubernetes can be automated to create new containers for deployment while removing the existing containers and deploying the resources to the new containers.
- Automated bin packing: Kubernetes can run containerized tasks using a cluster of nodes and optimally utilize the resources at hand like CPU and RAM. You can define your requirements and how many resources you want to allocate to each container and Kubernetes will optimize everything accordingly.
- Self-healing properties: When a container fails, Kubernetes can restart them or replace them or even kill the containers that have turned non-responsive. It manages the system effectively and ensures the users have a smooth experience.
- Secret and configuration management: Kubernetes stores and manages sensitive information such as passwords and SSH keys. Secrets and application configurations can be updated using Kubernetes without rebuilding the container images or exposing any of the secrets present in the stack configuration.
How do Docker and Kubernetes work together?
Organizations everywhere are embracing the cloud-native DevOps journeys. Docker and Kubernetes are indispensable parts of this journey. Today, Docker and Kubernetes are among the top tools helping bring about digital transformation in organizations across the globe. Docker and Kubernetes have effectively revolutionized the way software is created, developed, developed, and shipped at scale.
So, how do Docker and Kubernetes work together?
Docker helps create the containers while Kubernetes helps manage them during run-time. Docker is commonly used for packaging and shipping the applications, while Kubernetes is used for deploying and scaling the applications. When used together, Docker and Kubernetes function as effective digital transformation enablers.
For instance, take the below simple CI/CD pipeline:
- First, the code written by the developers is pushed into Git
- Building and testing takes place with Maven in Jenkins for C
- Ansible Playbooks for deployment on AWS are written using Ansible as the deployment tool
- JFrog Artifactory serves as a repository manager and the artifacts are stored in JFrog
- Ansible and Artifactory communicate with each other and deploy the artifacts onto Amazon EC2 instance
- SonarQube is used to be review the code and provide a static code analysis
- The app is then deployed on Docker by creating Docker files and Docker images
- Kubernetes is deployed to create a Kubernetes cluster and together with Docker images, the app is deployed
- Nagios is used to monitor the infrastructure
Microservices and containers are helping convert large monolithic applications into smaller, more manageable components enabling them to be packaged and deployed separately without any dependencies. This makes the apps more agile, scalable, and resilient. They also enable apps to be updated, changed, and re-deployed faster than ever before.
Getting trained in Docker and Kubernetes could be the gamechanger of your career needs. Cognixia – the world’s leading digital talent transformation company provides a world-class Docker and Kubernetes Boot Camp. This Docker and Kubernetes training cover all the important concepts that you need to know about to build a successful career in DevOps and Microservices. The course covers:
- Fundamentals of Docker
- Fundamentals of Kubernetes
- Running Kubernetes instances on Minikube
- Creating and working with Kubernetes clusters
- Working with resources
- Creating and modifying workloads
- Working with Kubernetes API and key metadata
- Working with specialized workloads
- Scaling deployments and application security
- Understanding the container ecosystem
This live instructor-led Boot Camp gives you the opportunities to learn Kubernetes and Docker across multiple modalities in public or private schedules. Cognixia also provides the opportunity to learn Kubernetes online with this Boot Camp. After completing this Kubernetes training, every participant gets a Certificate of Completion from Cognixia validating the skills and concepts learned during the sessions. This Docker and Kubernetes Boot Camp incorporates numerous real-life projects and hands-on exercises to ensure that every participant gets a thorough understanding of all the concepts discussed during the sessions.
To know more about our Docker and Kubernetes Boot Camp, visit here.